Wednesday, 1 June 2016

Article Writing Services: How to Find the Best One for You

Recently Google has done Panda/Farmer update, and many website owners are rushing to find suitable article writers for them to keep their supremacy. This Panda/Farmer update by Google basically rewards websites which have original quality content with good page ranking and penalizes websites with copied or PLR (private label rights) contents with low page rankings. Thus website and blog owners are rushing to find quality article writers to get quality fresh contents and also to improve the quality of the existing contents in their websites. Thus suddenly there is huge demand for quality article writers and/or quality article writing services. Entrepreneurs are trying all options available to find the best ones, but they find it difficult to get through as most of the quality writers are booked for months in advance. Many article writers have doubled or tripled their charges, and many small business owners just cannot pay that much of money. Is there any way out?
Entrepreneurs should consider the following options to find good writers to work for them:
1. Outsourcing Sites: If enough time is available, say about one month before you want to receive the articles, you may go to freelancing sites like Elance, oDesk, or Guru. There are many other outsourcing sites as well; however, these are established ones. Employers can register and then put advertisement in the websites asking for bids for the specific projects they would like to hire article writers for. There are scores of people who bid for the projects. You have to choose the right one for you. Usually the payment made by the employers are secured in escrow accounts, and thus many article writers find it convenient to work through these outsourcing sites as the payment is secured. However, scores of people vie for projects and they often try to undercut each other, thus the standard price quoted for projects here are often lower and that forces many quality writers to stay away from them. Often bidders from low-cost countries quote prices that are unbelievable to people bidding from the high-cost countries. Choosing bidders only by the low price may backfire at the end. You should be wise enough to understand the eligibility and background of the bidders from their profiles. Some outsourcing sites offer free tests in relevant areas, and many article writers take these tests. If you are not sure of the quality, you may check out the test scores of the bidders.
2. Buy-Article Sites: Sites like Constant-Content or Associated Content gives you the option of posting your proposal or buy articles directly from scores of article writers who keep their articles ready for sale there. Many writers write many articles on popular topics, set the price, and display the gist of the article, which you can read, choose, and buy. If you do not find any article ready for you, you can post your project. Articles in these websites are said to be of better quality and found to be costly as well. However, may writers do not prefer these websites as the selection process of the articles seems to be too strict and are rejected for small reasons. In addition, these sites keep about one third of the sale proceedings and that puts off many writers.
3. Reference: Do you know somebody who is getting their articles written by others? Can they recommend somebody for you?
4. Internet Research: A lot of article writers regularly post about their services in sites like Craigslist or local business listing websites. You can browse the relevant pages and get somebody offering the service, living very close to where you live!
5. Advertisements: Experienced writers believe in advertising. Many article writers make it a habit of spending about 10% of their earnings in paid advertisements. Thus some time you can find good article writers or article-writing services in Google or other search engines. Many article writers put their advertisements in high-traffic websites frequented by internet entrepreneurs, e.g., sitepoint or warriorforum, etc. You can find many writers in these sites who are found to be quite reliable and experienced.
6. Writer's Website: Usually writers keep a specific website dedicated for their writing business and usually that site is hosted in a domain that matches the writer's name. These websites detail everything that you are looking for, the services offered by the writer, rates, availability, samples, etc. Active and trained writers prefer to update their blogs regularly, thus you can visit the blog section of the website to understand what the writer is up to. You can get contact details of the writer from the website, and you can shoot an email to them immediately
If you want to play safe and play long-term, you may consider working with a few people and then zoom down on those who are suitable to your needs and keep working with them.
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Think Holiday Villas Think Luxury Vacation

Imagine the clear blue sky, the crystal clear blue water of the pool glistening in the unbroken sunshine; imagine the bright white painted walls, the archways and the shiny, clean tiles of the terrace leading through to clean, sleek lines of a property, with modern fittings and luxurious furnishings.
Imagine holiday villas. Imagine sun-soaked destinations such Spain, Portugal, Egypt, Morocco, Malta, Turkey, but also imagine somewhere a little different: maybe a destination for skiing, walking, culture, golf or a combination of some or all of them: France, Austria, Germany, Ireland, the Czech Republic.
Hiring holiday villas in such wonderful destinations can give you a taste of luxury for one, two weeks or more in a location you might not otherwise be able to sample. Renting gives you the privacy of your own personal space without the worries of ownership. You and your family might never have experienced anything like it before, but it is almost certain that you would want to do so again.
In a hotel you have one room for your privacy, but every other facility you have to share with other guests; the pool, dining room and sun terraces may be at the other end of the hotel and you have to share them all with strangers. In a villa, it is so different: you have many rooms for the use of you, your family and any other guests that you have invited; your dining room is one of those rooms; your private terrace and (in most cases) your own pool is right on your doorstep.
Villas can range from beachside to mountain foothills, from single bedrooms sleeping two to many bedrooms sleeping more than a dozen. The things they have in common are good living and private luxury.
Can you see yourself rising in the morning, getting yourself a glass of chilled juice and watching the sunlight glinting on the sea?
Or is your vision for a relaxing evening barbecue with a backdrop of the beautifully lit mountain landscape after a day spent walking in glorious countryside?
If you don't want to travel abroad, then there is a great selection of holiday villas in this country too. Some are big enough for either a corporate gathering, a family re-union, or somewhere to relax with your closest and dearest friends. You can get holiday villas luxurious enough to have a formal lounge, a dining room, an indoor heated swimming pool, a sauna, a gymnasium and even a cinema! Such properties could be used for wedding parties, or golden wedding anniversary celebrations, for example. Take advantage of services that can make your stay even more special: a chef, a chauffeur, maids, a marquee ... even a helicopter pad! Not all holiday villas are like that, but shop around to find a holiday villa that really does suit your requirements.
There are such a range of opportunities available in holiday villas that you could spend hours surfing the internet and letting your imagination give you a preview! Live the dream! Get yourself booked into a holiday villa for your next vacation.
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Some Tips for Effective Essay Writing

If you've been given another essay writing assignment, then you know that there comes a time when no matter what the assignment is, you feel as though you need a break. This of course is when you can let procrastination creep in and then if this happens, you may find that starting the essay is incredibly difficult let alone finishing. There seems to be so much to do from research to writing, to editing and rewriting before you can hand it in. And if you're thinking this, you are definitely not alone. No matter how good someone is when it comes to writing papers, everyone at some point runs into stumbling block or challenge that they have problems dealing with. However, there are a few tips for effective essay writing that you can follow.
One thing to realize when thinking about effective essay writing is that each person has their own way of thinking and their own style of writing. The last thing you want to do is try to emulate another persons matter of writing style. Although at first glance, this can seem like a good idea, (after all, we all want to please the teacher right?) Ultimately you'll end up finding it very difficult to keep up that particular style for any length in your paper. You may wind up with something that at best, as errors in and at worst sounds like someone else wrote. In short, you may also find that your writing flow will simply not be there.
Similarly, another tip is to of course keep in mind the rules regarding proper essay form and language but you also want to be able to write in your own voice and this is one of the key things you need to realize when it comes to effective essay writing. It's not just collecting a series of facts and data and presenting, you also want to be able to present them in a way that is unique to you. This will make the assignment go that much better.
Finally, remember that when you want to truly achieve effective essay writing, you need to give yourself the time to do it but also you need to allow yourself the luxury of errors the first time through. The last thing you want to try to do is write the perfect paper in the first revision. If you allow yourself the luxury of errors or mistakes and as you rewrite clean them up, you will find that you will actually get things done that much quicker.
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6 Steps to a Better Research Paper

Step 1. The first step in any research project is deciding what you want to research. For example, you may want to research China. Whoa, that's a big topic. You'll need to narrow it down a bit.
What exactly interests you about China? Let's say you're interested in the History of China. That topic is as enormous as the Great Wall, so let's narrow it down to something more manageable:
  • History of China-->Women's roles -->Tang Dynasty (June 18, 618 - June 1, 90)
Step 2. What you need to do now is consider the purpose of your research:
  • Will you compare and contrast the roles of women during the Tang dynasty with some other country?
  • Will you make an argument for or against the treatment of women during the Tang Dynasty?
  • Do you have an original theory you would like to propose about women's status during the Tang Dynasty?
Let's pick option 3: An original theory regarding women's roles during the Tang Dynasty.
Step 3: Now you must formulate a thesis. A thesis is typically a one -sentence summary of your topic. For our topic, the thesis may be:
Thesis: Women's status in the Tang Dynasty was relatively liberal.
Great! We've got our thesis statement.
Step 4. Now, the fun stuff: let's come up with a hypothesis. Admittedly to do this, you must already know something about your topic. But, essentially a hypothesis is an attempt to explain the state of something-it is to answer the question of why.
Women's liberal status during the Tang Dynasty was a result of relative stability and prosperity of the time.
Step 5. Our next step is the literature review, which will help us back-up our hypothesis. A literature review is a survey of the research that already exists on your chosen topic. You will incorporate this into your results, most likely a research paper. There are several different ways to incorporate the literature review.
Below are two commonly used methods of incorporating a lit review:
  • Compare and contrast the existing research
  • Present the existing research in chronological order
In our case, we'll compare and contrast the existing research, to figure out where our thesis fits in. For example, we'll look at the roles of women in China and compare times of peace with times of war, times of prosperity with times of leanness.
Step 6. After our lit review, we should have a broad understanding of our topic. At this point, we must begin the writing phase of our research project.
Before you begin, here are a few tips:
Your research paper should consist of:
An introduction
  • Clearly states thesis and hypothesis
  • Gives some indication of the topics to be covered (i.e. war, peace, prosperity, poverty)
  • Each paragraph should have a topic sentence-something that tells the reader what is to come. And, each paragraph should transition smoothly into the next.
  • How many paragraphs will depend entirely on the required length of the paper, but as a general guide:
  • One or more paragraphs for lit review
  • One or more paragraphs for each issue addressed in hypothesis
  • One or more paragraphs synthesizing the work with previous research-both the areas where it coincided and where it contradicted
  • A conclusion should make mention of your thesis/hypothesis, results, and conclusions.
Bibliography/Works Cited
  • Here is where all your sources used in the research should be listed.
  • The format will depend entirely on the requirements set forth.
Good Luck and Happy Writing!
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Writing Graduate Application Essays Made Easy

Unlike college application essays, questions for graduate personal statements or admission essays, are more inclined to ask for career plans and research experiences. Since applicants are already past the undergraduate years, they are expected to have more concrete ideas regarding what they want or like to pursue in life. Some universities ask common questions that make the applicants elaborate on their academic interests or what specific area or discipline they would like to venture on. You might want to briefly discuss interesting reasons that made you decide to take up a particular field. Say something about how taking up a certain post-graduate course is an essential part in achieving your long-term career goals. When asked about research experiences, relate research topics you've enjoyed doing in the past. Remember that research is a big thing in graduate school so make sure you highlight your superb research skills, if ever. Similar to the college admission essay, candidates for a post-graduate also need to include academic background, achievements, and extra-curricular in their essays.
One of the several topics graduate school applicants can write about is their field and clinical experiences. Assuming candidates already have previous working experiences, they can say something about the practical values they gained in the process. It is best to relate job experiences in line with your career plans. Avoid mentioning on-the-job experiences which are not directly related with the field you are applying for. This may give evaluators an impression that you don't have a clear sense of your goals or whatever it is you want to achieve. Admissions officers want to make sure applicants are really serious in pursuing post-graduate course and are not merely out to dabble and leave after a few semesters. They want to admit applicants who may be potential additions to the university's roster of prominent and successful alumni. Convince them that you deserve a slot by producing an essay that requires little additional queries. Needless to say, the expectations and standards of admissions officers are higher for those aspiring for post-graduate degrees.
Writing graduate application essays, in essence, is also very much like crafting a college admission essay. You should also follow the basics of an effective personal statement like unity, coherence, and focus. A well-written essay reflects the fact you've allotted effort and time in weaving your essay in the same way sloppy essay can be a telltale sign that you've done it in haste. Start the statement with a strong point of entry that can surely grab the attention of your readers. Every sentence in a personal statement is significant but make sure your opening paragraphs are especially engaging. If you've successfully thought of a great introduction, sustain the momentum by polishing the rest of the contents of the essay. If you were able to craft a successful college application essay, there's no doubt you could also come up with a winning graduate admission essay.
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Tips on How to Get Professional Article Writing Services

Article writing services provide a powerful tool for developing unique and relevant content. They can also be used to place links that increases traffic to a website. The search engines also use the content on the website to determine its SEO ranking. It is therefore a good idea to make use of articles so as to generate for leads and sales. There are many professional article writing companies on the Internet. These companies are able to provide high quality, relevant and up to date articles. The following are some tips that can be used to get good article writing companies.
Having precise requirements goes a long way in availing professional article writing services. A clear goal and objective should be formulated before engaging the services of a writer. This will ensure that there are no disagreements on the content and style of the articles after the project has commenced. Considerations should be made on the number of articles needed, length of the articles, the keywords to be used and the keyword density.
The price of the articles should also be put into consideration well before an agreement is made. It is also recommended that a business stipulates the exact styles and formats to be used in the articles. There are different types of contents that can be generated including articles, blogs and press releases. These different types of contents vary in size, content and style of writing. The different types of content are also used for different purposes.
Seeking for recommendations from people who have used the article writing services is also a very informed choice. Getting the opinion of acquaintances helps a business to find reliable content providers. Searching for referrals on the company's website is also help a company in choosing the best article writing companies. The best companies are able to avail both positive and negative sentiments on their website. This helps to establish the genuineness of a company since some of them only show the positive comments.
Bargaining for the best deal should then be made. It is important to ask whether the article writing services are willing to offer discounts for large orders. A website can be able to get very fair deals from professional writers after negotiations. It is however important to note that quality work is normally expensive. The benefits accrued from such contents should always be the primary focus.
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Assignment Help - How to Choose a Good Service Provider

Assignments, theses, dissertations, and projects - these are parts of the lives of every student and getting grades in these assignments is critical for success in their courses. And getting good grades is essential for building a good CV.
These are days of intense competition everywhere, and schools and colleges are no exception. So, whether a student likes or not, he has no other choice but to make all efforts he can if he is serious about getting that dream job.
As a student, you would only too well know that assignments, essays, term papers, and research papers are not routine chores, but your key to earning top grades. So, it is all the more essential that you should get expert help so you can prepare a beautiful assignment.
But you should avoid the obvious pitfalls; not everyone who has a website will be an assignment expert. Here are a few tips on how to choose a person or company that would be of great help to you:
1. An experienced writer would know what your universities need and how your assignment has to be tailored to meet those needs in accordance with your expectations. Check out the credentials of your guy either by email or through live chat.
2. Not everyone who has a website will turn out to be good in assignments. And beware of sites that spring up overnight.
3. What is the track record of companies who provide such services? This is a field, not meant for newbies and amateurs. Your homework helper has to be someone who has handled complex work before. For example, a service provider like has helped over 5000 students over the last several years. Ask your service person about his experience in this field of work.
4. A good assignment expert is one who will not just polish your homework, but will also help you understand the concepts clearly. Will your assistant do this?
5. Beware of sites that sell you recycled and plagiarized term papers. They are not only badly researched, but are also badly written, with lots of mistakes and grammatical errors.
6. One sure way of identifying a fake site is to give them a call. Fake sites do mention about 'Live Chat', but mostly you won't find them online.
7. Best way to engage with a site is to give them call, talk with their representative before placing an order. Does your assignment helper give this facility?
8. Some sites claim that they are based at UK/US. Most of them don't even have a phone number, leave alone an office.
9. Some sites say that the assignments given to them will be handled by scholars but the rates quoted by them should be an indicator to you. Actually, the assignments at these companies are handled by school drop-outs.
10. Beware of companies who charge low rates, because you can be sure then that such companies would only give you poor quality work, which could be costly in the long run.
So, my suggestion to you is this: don't submit an assignment that has 'indifference' written all over it. Your career depends on great grades, and great grades in turn depend upon how well you've prepared your assignments.
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The Case of Thai Joint Venture With Japanese Partner in Construction Business

Literature Review
Business in the 21st century is increasingly conducted with shifting borders. International partnerships will become standard practice as the product life cycles shorten and immediate distribution become imperative. As business is increasing its globalization, alliances among multinational firms are becoming more popular. Cooperation between international firms can take many forms such as, cross-licensing of proprietary technology, sharing of production facilities, co-funding of research projects, and marketing of each other's products using existing distribution networks (Griffin and Pustay, 2005). Such forms of cooperation are known as strategic alliances, business arrangements whereby two or more firms choose to cooperate for their mutual benefit. A joint venture is a specific and more formal type of strategic alliance.
2.1 Defining International Joint Venture (IJV)
An international joint venture (IJV) is a special type of strategic alliance in which two or more companies from different countries join together to create a new business entity that is legally separate and distinct from its parents. Joint ventures are normally established as corporations and are owned by the founding parents in whatever proportions they negotiate. Although unequal ownership is common, many are owned equally by the founding firms (Berger, 1999).
Here is also a definition adapted from Shenkar and Zeira (1987):
1 it is a separate legal organisational entity, and belongs entirely to neither/none of its parent;
2 it is jointly controlled by its parent;
3 these parents are legally independent of each other;
4 the headquarters of at least one parent is located outside the country in which the IJV operates.
As stated some IJVs are formed on an equity basis, more flexible arrangements may depend on contract cooperation without involving the legal commitments of equity. Some IJVs may have more than two parents. In general, the more parents the greater the administrative complexities and the greater the problem of managing the project. Sometimes, both (or all) parents are located outside the IJV country. For example, Coca Cola (Vietnam) was started as an IJV between Coca Cola (USA) and a Singaporean bottler; originally it did not employ any Vietnamese managers, as a result the company needed to deal with cultural difference (Beamish, 1985).
In terms of the construction industry, joint venture has been seen as a tool for improving the performance of the construction process and emphasizes the way it helps to create synergy and maximize the effectiveness of each participant's resources (Barlow et al., 1997).
The Construction Industry Institute defines joint ventures as a long-term commitment between two or more organisations for the purpose of achieving specific business objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participant's resources. This requires changing traditional relationships to a shared culture without regard to organisational boundaries. The relationship is based upon trust, dedication to common goals, and an understanding of each other's individual expectations and values (Barlow et al. 1997). To date, joint venture is understood as a set of collaborative processes, which emphasizes the importance of common goals. The base of joint venture is a high level of interorganisational trust and the presence of mutually beneficial goals. Joint venture means a management process that helps the strategic planning to improve the efficiency of the enterprises, and forms a team with common objectives (Barlow et al. 1997). Participants of a project can improve performance in terms of cost, time, quality, build ability, fitness-to-purpose, and a whole of range of other criteria, if they adopt more collaborative ways of working (Bresnen and Marshall 2000). Barlow et al. (1997) mentions six successful factors of joint venture: building trust, teambuilding, the need for top level commitment, the importance of individuals, the strategic movement of key personnel, and the need for open and flexible communications. The same authors quote as common benefits in a joint venture relation: reduced costs, shortened delivery time, improvement in construction quality, better working atmosphere, and organisational learning. Joint venture classifications focus on the duration of cooperation between partners. This dissertation will be used as a case study to explore the extent and native of these benefits in practice.
Two main types of joint venture are found in literature: project joint venture and strategic joint venture or long-term joint venture. Project joint venture is a cooperative relationship between organisations for the duration of a specific project (Barlow et al. 1997). At the end of the project, the relationship is terminated and another joint venture may commence on the next project (Kumaraswamy and Matthews 2000). Welling and Kamann (2001) state that if these firms do not meet again in another project, the learning effect reached on the particular project will be eliminated. Strategic joint venture is a relationship with a high level of cooperation between partners (Barlow et al. 1997), which takes place when two or more firms use joint venture on a long term basis to undertake more than one construction project, or some continuing activity (Kumaraswamy and Matthews 2000). In this kind of joint venture, the learning achieved in a specific project is more likely to be used in future projects. In the context of a strategic joint venture, it becomes a management philosophy that is expected to work continuously for each and every project and there are more expectations from team members than for a project joint venture (Cheng and Li 2001). The type of TNC JV is the strategic joint venture where Thai and Japanese Partner are focusing on the long term goal.
2.2 Seeing Joint Ventures as a Foreign Market Entry and Development Strategy
Joint ventures are sometimes viewed as a second (or even third) best option for supplying a foreign market-being used only when government regulations (e.g. ownership and export controls, restrictions on royalty payments, etc.) prevent the establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries, exports, or licensing. Indeed, there are major problems that arise in the planning, negotiation, and management of international joint ventures. Despite such difficulties, it is widely recognised in the literature that there are important strategic and competitive advantages that may be derived from successful joint venture agreements, and such collaboration may be a first option in certain circumstances (Kenichi Ohmae, 1985). Connolly (1984), for example, argued that the assets of developed-country multinational enterprises (capital, foreign exchange, technology, management, and marketing skills, etc.) and developing-country firms (lower costs, greater familiarity with local markets, etc.) are complementary, and that the combination of these assets in a joint venture results in mutual benefits. This can be seen in the case of TNC. Similarly, Contractor (1984) argued that the loss of control and the sharing of profits inherent in equity joint ventures is more than compensated for by the expertise and capital contribution of the local partner; contacts with government officials; faster entry into the market; and risk reduction. Harrigan (1984, 1985) argued that joint ventures should not be seen as a hiding place or a sign of weakness. Rather, if organized properly, joint ventures would be a source of competitive advantage, a means of defending existing strategic positions against forces too strong for one firm to withstand itself or as a means of implementing changes in strategic postures (e.g. diversification access to technology). Joint ventures allow each partner to concentrate their resources in areas of expertise, while enabling diversification into attractive but unfamiliar business areas. Overall, Harrigan (1984, 1985) concludes that joint ventures are important strategic weapon in responding to the challenges of global competition.
2.3 Reasons for forming the IJV
The partners (Thai and Japanese) may have shared interests in forming an IJV which give both opportunities to
5 create greater market power by combining resources;(Bell, 1996)
6 reduce risk by sharing costs (costs of investment and production are shared);
7 reap economies of scale;
8 cooperate and avoid competition , which might incur greater costs than those incurred by agreeing to the IJV (the IJV is an alliance that restricts your own capacity for independent action, but also restricts that of your partner); (Contractor & Lorange, 1988).
In general, though, most IJVs offer parents different opportunities which arise from their different environments. A project might offer the foreign parent access to a local market, and the local parent access to the international market. According to (, in 1997 two securities companies, the Premier Group of Thailand and SBC Warburg, formed a joint venture designed to provide Warburg with local expertise and Premier with international access.
Furthermore, the foreign parent needs to meet the host government's requirements for doing business in the country (in this case the Thai Government). For instance, a foreign company is only permitted to operate in the country if ownership is shared with a local company. The IJV offers the foreign parent opportunities to learn about local marketing conditions and to gain access to local resources, including production facilities, labour, and materials. For the local parent these are opportunities to generate upstream and downstream industries. For instance, the development of an IJV pulp mill encourages local entrepreneurs to increase logging facilities and to invest in paper manufacture. The local government benefits by opportunities to encourage foreign investment. Also, the foreign parent may be allowed to take only minority ownership, and must fulfil conditions regarding local employment, technology transfer, purchase of local materials, etc (Chowdhury, 1992).
2.4 Factors influencing IJV success and failure
The more that the company depends upon the strategic alliance in order to achieve its strategic goal, the more it invests in the success of the alliance. In the case of TNCJV this means investing to find the ideal partner. Finding the ideal partner takes time and effort, and the greater the importance that the firm gives to this selection process, the greater the chances of success (Geringer 1991).
Hung's (1992) study of Canadian companies operating in South-East Asia found that "the most often mentioned difficulty is to get the right partner company, one which has compatible objectives and is trustworthy". Therefore, trust is one of the most important parts of forming the IJV. Trust factors then will be reviewed:
2.4.1 Trust between the parents
The project is more likely to succeed when each parent trusts that the other is genuinely committed to the project and will do its best to abide by all agreements between them (Demirbag & Mirza, 2000).
When more partners trust each other, the easier they find it to reach agreement on internal arrangements:
1 applying the same strategic priorities to planning;
2 management style, and systems;
3 systems for communicating between the parents, the IJV, and parents; within the IJV; and with the environment
4 factors associated with business interests, goals, impact of size, timescale
5 assessments of IJV success and failure: project evaluation, both ongoing and upon termination.
(Demirbag & Mirza, 2000)
2.4.2 Mistrust between parents, and the environment
Mistrust arises from
13 inadequate planning;
14 communication problems between parents (Thai and Japanese in this case)
15 wide differences in the national and organisational cultures of the parents;
16 one parent changing its attitude to the project in response to its own internal changes - e.g., a new strategy, a new CEO;
17 one parent changing its attitude to the project in response to changes in its business environment.
To take the final point: both parents operate in their own volatile business environment. Their local markets and competition differ. They are subject to different local political, social, and economic pressures. These environmental differences make any alliance inherently unstable (Geringer, 1988).
According to Mikio Kunisawa Representative Director of Nishimatsu Construction (HQ in Japan), TNC had a full order book including a heavy work load and the prospect of many new projects during year 2005-2006 period. However, the situation at year-end is somewhat different from his expectation, particularly for Nishimatsu's Bangkok Office, and TNC now faces a challenge to maintain the business levels of the previous years (2006). The primary factor affecting business confidence is the continuing general political instability in Thailand, including an inconclusive general election and the resulting postponement of government decisions regarding infrastructure and development projects ( In the light of this uncertain situation, the forecast indicator for economic growth in Thailand has been revised downward. A further effect has been a downturn in business confidence within the private sector, reducing planned investments in the industrial and real estate sectors ( This situation could then establish uncertainty between the parent company and the environment they face.
These factors of environmental uncertainty might be the reason for focusing only on short-term alliances with highly specific goals. The partners might use an initial limited alliance in order to test the possibilities for a greater commitment and to build trust (Harrigan, 1985). This also has implications for communication. Each partner needs to communicate information about its own environment and to develop knowledge of the other's.
2.4.3 Trust within the project
A project succeeds when project staff trusts each other and when persons posted from the two parents develop a synergetic relationship. Before project operations start, a shared project culture is fostered by mixing staff from the parents in groups, where they work together on project planning. They exchange non-critical technological and business data (Harrigan, 1985).
A lack of trust arises when
18 staff join the project ignorant of the needs and interests of their colleagues from the other parent;
19 local staff feel threatened by a stronger foreign parent;
20 conflict arise from human resource and technology transfer policies (one parent cannot supply the skills to which it is committed);
21 cultural differences are exploited.
2.4.4 Trust between the project staff and their parent
A project succeeds when staff posted to it feels confident of the support of their headquarters. Mistrust arises when promised support fails to materialize, or staff feel that their long-term career prospects with the company are in jeopardy. A project is also undermined when top management fails to communicate its goal effectively within the organisation. Subordinate levels perceive it as a drain on their resources, and give it a minimum of attention (Kachara & Hebert, 1999).
2.4.5 Similar business interests
The potential partners are more likely to work together effectively when they have related interests. The parents of successful IJVs have similar interests and belong to similar or complementary sectors. When both contribute and learn from the other, fruitful cooperation is possible. Companies in the same industry form alliances when they hope to benefit from discrepancies in technology, systems, and markets (Kogut, 1988). By 1993, joint ventures parented by the Swiss food firm, Nestle, included alliances with Coca Cola (canned coffee and tea drinks), General mills (cereals), and two companies in the people's Republic of China (a coffee and creamer plant, an infant formula and milk powder plant).
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